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Dante's Inferno (The Divine Comedy: Volume…

Dante's Inferno (The Divine Comedy: Volume I, Hell) (vuoden 2016 painos)

– tekijä: Dante Alighieri (Tekijä), Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Kääntäjä)

Sarjat: The Divine Comedy (1)

JäseniäKirja-arvostelujaSuosituimmuussijaKeskimääräinen arvioKeskustelut / Maininnat
19,801189153 (4.08)1 / 470
Led by Virgil, the poet is taken down into the depths and shown the seven layers of Hell and those doomed to suffer eternal torment for vices exhibited and sins committed on earth. The 'Inferno' is the first part of the 'Divine Comedy' which continues the journey through Purgatory and Paradise.
Teoksen nimi:Dante's Inferno (The Divine Comedy: Volume I, Hell)
Kirjailijat:Dante Alighieri (Tekijä)
Muut tekijät:Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (Kääntäjä)
Info:Digireads.com (2016), 150 pages
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Teoksen tarkat tiedot

Jumalainen näytelmä. 1 : Helvetti (tekijä: Dante Alighieri)

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    Soul Retrievers (tekijä: David Burton) (Skylles)
    Skylles: Explorations of Hell

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Näyttää 1-5 (yhteensä 189) (seuraava | näytä kaikki)
Great Book!
  mcdonaldlibrary | Jun 19, 2021 |
"I came around and found myself now searching through a dark wood, the right way blurred and lost. How hard it is to say what that wood was, a wilderness, savage, brute, harsh and wild… My theme will be the good I found there…" (pg. 3)

In my belated quest to acquire, over the course of my adult life, an appreciation of culture that was once considered the responsibility of our education system – but long since abdicated – it pleases me to be able to say that I've now read Dante's Inferno. However, I must also say that, in contrast to my previous encounters with Homer, Milton, the scribes of the Bible and others, I rather struggled with this one and did not enjoy it.

This struggle was in part because of my Penguin Classics edition. These are usually dependable, readable editions accessible to the layman – that, in fact, was the imprint's initial raison d'être – but I found this edition of Dante's Inferno plodding. It begins with a dense, 100-page introduction that did more to get me lost in the weeds than bring me out of the forest, and it ends with another 130+ pages of commentaries and endnotes. I know that a reader isn't obliged to read these, of course, but I usually like a deep delve into the scholarly analysis. Here, it sapped my will.

This edition also disappointed in its translation by Robin Kirkpatrick, which is a technical feat, no doubt, but in my opinion a rather tasteless one. From what I understand, Dante's verse is particularly hard to translate – it seems like every word in Italian ends with a vowel, which makes it easier to rhyme than in English – and his austere, unlyrical style does a translator no favours ("his plain style and syntax," Kirkpatrick writes, almost ruefully, "has yet to be absorbed into the repertoire of English poetry" (pg. ciii)). But, even with these caveats, it's still disappointing when the most famous phrase of Dante – the inscription above the gates of Hell, "Abandon all hope, ye who enter here" – is delivered as the rather more flaccid "Surrender as you enter every hope you have" (pg. 21).

But, translators and editions aside, I also struggled with Dante himself. The narrative was often laborious; the descent into a literal Hell which Dante pursues was lacking in orientation. Many of the denizens of Dante's Hell are political and religious figures from his own time, and to understand the context of their role the reader must undergo a restless flicking backwards and forwards to the endnotes. I got lost in the procession of monstrous creatures, and the thread of narrative was slight. Dante has great ideas, as I shall come onto presently, but these are not easy to discover for yourself as you read. Just about every line, it seems, requires scholarly divination. That plain, unlyrical style I mentioned above was not only unexpected (I was anticipating an Italian Milton), but it meant that in the moments when I was adrift I didn't even have the benefit of a killer phrase to sustain me through a rough patch.

Nevertheless, after the inauspicious journey through the outer rings of Hell, I did start to get a tenuous grasp on what Dante had achieved. The deeper he goes through his infamous Seven Circles of Hell, the better it gets, and by the end my impression of the poem was a favourable one. The poet Dante – as opposed to the character Dante in his Inferno – was an exile from his native land, and his conception of Hell is a sort of mind map for the paths a human soul can find themselves on. Barred from his literal homeland, he navigates the "construct in his mind [of] an intellectual and spiritual homeland" (pg. xxiii).

Dante's journey is not crude religious iconography of brimstone and winged hellspawn, but instead a lucid meditation on the moral challenges people face in their lives. His Hell is not a place for irredeemable sinners, but instead a banal dwelling-place for those who have erred in their lives and have not sought remedy, whether through apathy, sin or ignorance. As Kirkpatrick's introduction puts it, "the sinners in Dante's Hell… have all in some way denied themselves a full realization of their human potentiality and fallen into an alliance with dullness and death" (pg. lxxv). With this orientation in mind, we recognise that Dante's poem is not a gleeful condemnation or vindictive settling of scores, not even when the people he meets in Hell are people he has known in real life. He is gripped by "great sorrow" when he comes across the tortured, bewildered souls, "for many persons of the greatest worth were held, I knew, suspended on this strip" (pg. 31).

Mistakes on these paths of life lead to spiritual and psychological Hell. Dante's construction is a forerunner of Milton's Hell – in Paradise Lost, it is a place you end up if you make bad decisions in your life (which is why Milton's Satan is the lord there – you can't conceive of a worse decision to make in your life than to scorn and rebel against God). Dante was perhaps even more committed to this conception of Hell than Milton. Whereas Milton's Lucifer is rather compelling – a representation of the seductive appeal of secular, or anti-God, reasoning – Dante's Satan, when he finally appears at the end, is without fanfare. He is nothing, a void, an anticlimactic and – were it not for his grossness – pitiable creature, more like a hairy, bovine slug than a threatening demon. Evil is, for Dante, not sin or violence but "sheer banality and tedium" (pg. lxxv), as the Introduction puts it; a void inside that results from false life choices carried to their end. His Hell is made of ice, not fire. It is a deadening bureaucracy, rigorously organised into ossified strata, not a chaotic pandemonium of licentiousness and sin. When Dante emerges into the light of the mortal world at the end of Inferno, representing the decision to pursue a fulfilling (Christian) life, the reader shares his relief. (Kirkpatrick's commentary notes this beautifully: once the banality and tedium of evil is witnessed firsthand, even sin becomes insignificant, and "correspondingly the enjoyment of light is the essential duty of any created being" (pg. 448).)

Dante (both the poet and the character) is, in traversing this landscape, undergoing a courageous meditation on how to live properly. This adventure is, the Introduction says, "an attempt to see what the human mind can achieve when… it anatomizes its own psyche and adjusts its own ethical apparatus to achieve a better performance" (pg. lxxix). That's less thrilling, perhaps, than a tumble into a turbulent, out-of-control, fire-and-mayhem inferno (just how did that word come to mean what it means today? Its popularisers must not have even read Dante). But the mechanics are profound, even if – to a modern English-speaking audience – the execution is not.

I found myself admiring Dante's storytelling choices, even when the poem itself was failing to capture me. To end the story with such an anticlimactic adversary – the banal Satan figure – is a decision that I don't think any writer would have the courage to make today. It's perfect for Dante's message in Inferno, but I suspect most writers would prefer to sabotage their own painstakingly-built philosophy rather than conclude with something so lacking in a crowd-pleasing element. I admired the conception of the Seven Circles of Hell – once I understood it – and the decision by Dante to have Virgil, the Roman (and therefore pagan) poet, as his literal guide through the Inferno – is perhaps one of the great magnanimous acts of any artist in history. Given Dante's influence, the central role of Virgil in his story advocates for the moral legitimacy of pagan, Classical tradition in a Christian world, leading to a harmony between classical and Christian thought. Dante's Inferno is, in this crucial respect, a foundation stone for the Renaissance and the Age of Reason.

I would like such a noble conclusion to be my dominant thought, and I am sure that in time my appreciation for Dante's Inferno and its foundational role in Western culture will be my enduring memory of the book. But, for the purposes of review, it is worth reiterating that I found the book and its translation an often unsatisfying trial. I apologise for being such a heretic, and I don't know which circle of Hell such a statement puts me in (I suspect the sixth), but it's my honest, immediate response to finishing the book. I hope – to return to the quote from Dante with which I opened this review – that my theme has been the good I found here, but I was more stimulated by the ideas when they were unpacked in the introduction and the endnotes, even though these were denser than they needed to be. Dante's conceptual genius seeded all this, of course, but it was hard for me to reap. ( )
  MikeFutcher | Jun 5, 2021 |
Wow. In the first part of his Divine Comedy; the others being titled Purgatory and Paradise; Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) describes, in a vivid, earthy translation from the original Italian into English by University of Birmingham (England) English professor Steve Ellis, the horrors of Hell itself. Led into the nine circles by the ghost of Virgil (he of the Aeneid), Dante can scare the pants off of any twenty-first century reader, while making the reader laugh in sort of a gallows humor, with 700-year-old poetry. Not an easy read, but what an imagination!

Jim ( )
  Jimbookbuff1963 | Jun 5, 2021 |
K. pub 1308. not read yet.
  18cran | Jun 5, 2021 |
Video review

Dante is a genius! This is my fourth time through the Inferno (reading it, that is), and my first in Musa's lucid translation. The shining feature of this text is Musa's annotations (translator's intro; canto prefaces; and end notes). I've never been so fascinated by Dante's conception of the physical effects on earth of Lucifer's fall. Utterly brilliant.

Inferno, Dante, c. 1320 CE

From The Lifetime Reading Plan by Clifton Fadiman:
"...his masterpiece is the most ordered long poem in existence" (69).
"...Dante is a great painter...[and] a great architect" (70).

From The Western Canon by Harold Bloom:
"Dante is the most aggressive and polemical of the major Western writers, dwarfing even Milton in this regard" (72).
"Nothing else in Western literature...is as sublimely outrageous as Dante's exaltation of Beatrice...." (72).
"His poem is a prophecy and takes on the function of a third Testament in no way subservient to the Old and the New" (72-73).

From The Great Books by David Denby:
"The great Christian epic is a flabbergasting work, crazily methodical, both sublime and grotesque, cruel, dismaying, a work that bursts the usual moral and literary categories" (229).

From Genius by Harold Bloom:
"One cannot discuss genius in all the world's history without centering upon Dante, since only Shakespeare, of all geniuses of language, is richer" (91).

From Dante: A Life by R. W. B. Lewis:

"[Dante was]...a poet who commanded the language and ideas of the major classical schools of philosophy and the theological ranges of the thirteenth century" (65).

"No literary work ever written yields more to this manner of analysis [i.e. four levels of meaning] than does the Divine Comedy, with its hypnotic episodes and encounters and characters; its elaborate and always coherent moral scheme; its expansive views of what was happening to Florence, Italy, and Europe; and its Thomistically derived portrait of divinity. As the same time, Dante is the supreme example in literary history of the writer who, at every important turn, is seeking himself (humanly, morally, psychologically, imaginatively), finding himself, defining himself--in effect, telling his life story" (105).

Why is this fourteenth-century, Catholic-saturated epic poem such a masterpiece of Western literature? In a single statement: It never exhausts all it has to say to us. And as for the craft itself--aside from the content--it is a meticulously designed piece of artistic craftsmanship. So much so that Dante even created his own meter (terza rima) in which to sing the story of the everyman (Dante's surrogate) and his guide, the great Roman poet Virgil. it is not simply a pious fantasy of random hellish visions. Every element is imbued with rigorous learning and precisely tuned to attain its proper effect.

If we cue off of Harold Bloom's conception of the anxiety of influence, Dante's Commedia is the quintessence of the theory. Dante, with seemingly all of literature, philosophy, theology, and history at his command, not only subsumes but extends all of his predecessors from Homer to Ovid to the Bible and on through to his contemporaries. As but one example of many, Dante brings the great Ulysses into his epic and gives him a third and final voyage (after his return to Penelope at Ithika) that has no literary precedent. In this way, Dante views one path to greatness as conquering the giants that came before, and we will see this again in Milton.

I have read Inferno in its H. P. Cary, Longfellow, and Mandelbaum translations, but this time I decided to check out Mark Musa's translation in the handsome Penguin paperback. In his introduction, he specifies why he ditched anything like terza rime and why his predecessors came short: "...the price paid was disastrously high" (61). Because he has ditched many of the constraints others took on with translating the Inferno, he is "free of this tyranny" and can "listen carefully to Dante's voice" (64). In my opinion, the poem scans well and is competent with a few jarring choices, like "How did you get yourself in such a pickle?" (p. 234; canto XVIII, line 51). But Musa's sumptuous footnotes justify almost everything.

Why Vigil? Why midway through our mortal life? Virgil is Italy's treasured ancient poet, writing during glory days of Rome and the reign of the first emperor, the great Augustus. Dante, in this sense, is looking back to the roots of his country and to the shining days of Rome (think of Leopardi's poem "To Italy"). In another sense, Dante sees Virgil as his great kindred predecessor; it could only be he that is a worthy guide. Virgil supplants the Greek conception of the Muses. And midway, in historical context, would be 35 (the lifespan was then seen as seventy), which is not only the typical age range in which we start to focus on life's meaning, but also around the age at which Christ was crucified.

Beatrice, in the opening canto, secures her supreme place in Dante's life. Reading La Vita Nuova, we see that Beatrice was to become immortalized in Dante's childhood as the highest embodiment of love and redemption--the real story behind the work is tragic and romantic. As Virgil alludes: "...a spirit worthier than I, must take you" (on to higher realms) (71). Aside from Virgil, Beatrice, and obviously God and Christ, Dante also elevates Aristotle, who is of course such a key figure in Catholic philosophy--indeed, he reigned supreme for about fifteen hundred years. Dante's ethics, physics, and poetics are all founded on Aristotle, the emblem of Reason.

Even in English, the language soars:

"Here sighs and cries and shrieks of lamentation / echoed throughout the starless air of Hell" (III, 22-23).

"...sounds on sounds of weeping pound at me" (V, 27).

"...bellowing like the sea racked by tempests" (V, 29).

"A man who feels the shivers of a fever / coming on, his nails already dead of color / will tremble at the mere sight of cool shade" (XVII, 85-87).

"Weird shrieks of lamentation pierced through me / like arrow-shafts whose tips are barbed with pity, / so that my hands were covering my ears" (XXIX, 43-45).

Dante incorporates Plato and anticipates Cervantes's Quixote with the idea of the danger of romantic books:

"One day we read, to pass the time away, / of Lancelot, of how he fell in love; / we were alone, innocent of suspicion. / Time and again our eyes were brought together / by the book we read; our faces flushed and paled. (V, 127-131). Here there is an example of how literature brought two down into lust, but it can also be linked to how Don Quixote loses his sense of reality and allows himself to be swept away. Later, in canto XXIII, we get more commentary on fact versus fiction:

"for 'yon' and 'there' could not be more alike / than the fable and the fact, if one compares / the start and finish of both incidents" (XXIII, 7-9).

Hearkening back to the rigorous design of the epic poem, we find that there are nine circles of Hell, each linked to a specific category of sin, getting more and more depraved until we get to Judas and Lucifer himself. Each circle's punishment matches the sin. For example, the sin of schism find its punishment as having the sinners split down the middle. (Shockingly, for the modern reader, Mohammed himself is in this realm.) Lucifer does not make his appearance until the last canto, but it is a surprising portrait in the frozen lake. Milton, of course, will do the inverse and bring Lucifer to the foreground of the epic.

Probably the most impressive design of the whole effort is the architecture of the world (Northern hemisphere, Southern hemisphere, Jerusalem, Hell, and the center of gravity). Musa breaks down the creative way in which Dante exits the pilgrim and the sage from Lucifer's lair and sheds light on genius. Lucifer was cast headlong down to the earth. In Dante's imagination the impact of Lucifer's fall burrowed him into the earth all the way to the center (of gravity). This forced the earth from the core up to the surface, which formed the cave in which Lucifer lives. And this also necessitates Virgil to turn his body when he is midway down Lucifer (center of gravity) and exit the cave to come out in the other hemisphere. This is why it is suddenly night, and why, when the pilgrim looks back into the cave, he does not see Lucifer oriented the way he expected. ( )
  chrisvia | Apr 29, 2021 |
Näyttää 1-5 (yhteensä 189) (seuraava | näytä kaikki)

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When I had journeyed half of our life's way, I found myself within a shadowed forest, for I had lost the path that does not stray.
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Led by Virgil, the poet is taken down into the depths and shown the seven layers of Hell and those doomed to suffer eternal torment for vices exhibited and sins committed on earth. The 'Inferno' is the first part of the 'Divine Comedy' which continues the journey through Purgatory and Paradise.

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