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Vankileirien saaristo. III-IV : Tappotyöleirit ; Sielu ja piikkilanka :… (1973)

– tekijä: Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Muut tekijät: Katso muut tekijät -osio.

Sarjat: The Gulag Archipelago (Volume 2, Parts III-IV)

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1,336910,589 (4.26)12
The Gulag Archipelago is Solzhenitsyn’s attempt to compile a literary-historical record of the vast system of prisons and labor camps that came into being shortly after the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in 1917 and that underwent an enormous expansion during the rule of Stalin from 1924 to 1953. Various sections of the three volumes describe the arrest, interrogation, conviction, transportation, and imprisonment of the Gulag’s victims by Soviet authorities over four decades. The work mingles historical exposition and Solzhenitsyn’s own autobiographical accounts with the voluminous personal testimony of other inmates that he collected and committed to memory during his imprisonment.Upon publication of the first volume of The Gulag Archipelago, Solzhenitsyn was immediately attacked in the Soviet press. Despite the intense interest in his fate that was shown in the West, he was arrested and charged with treason on February 12, 1974, and was exiled from the Soviet Union the following day.… (lisätietoja)
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This review is written with a GPL 4.0 license and the rights contained therein shall supersede all TOS by any and all websites in regards to copying and sharing without proper authorization and permissions. Crossposted at WordPress, Blogspot, & Librarything by Bookstooge’s Exalted Permission

Title: Gulag Archipelago, Vol 2
Series: Gulag Archipelago
Author: Alexander Solzhenitsyn
Rating: 4 of 5 Stars
Genre: Non-fiction
Pages: 648
Words: 276.5K

Synopsis:


Containing Parts III & IV of Solzhenitsyn’s book, The Gulag Archipelago.

From Wikipedia.com

Structurally, the text comprises seven sections divided (in most printed editions) into three volumes: parts 1–2, parts 3–4, and parts 5–7. At one level, the Gulag Archipelago traces the history of the system of forced labor camps that existed in the Soviet Union from 1918 to 1956. Solzhenitsyn begins with V. I. Lenin’s original decrees which were made shortly after the October Revolution; they established the legal and practical framework for a series of camps where political prisoners and ordinary criminals would be sentenced to forced labor. The book then describes and discusses the waves of purges and the assembling of show trials in the context of the development of the greater Gulag system; Solzhenitsyn gives particular attention to its purposive legal and bureaucratic development.

The narrative ends in 1956 at the time of Nikita Khrushchev’s Secret Speech (“On the Personality Cult and its Consequences”). Khrushchev gave the speech at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, denouncing Stalin’s personality cult, his autocratic power, and the surveillance that pervaded the Stalin era. Although Khrushchev’s speech was not published in the Soviet Union for a long time, it was a break with the most atrocious practices of the Gulag system.

Despite the efforts by Solzhenitsyn and others to confront the legacy of the Gulag, the realities of the camps remained a taboo subject until the 1980s. Solzhenitsyn was also aware that although many practices had been stopped, the basic structure of the system had survived and it could be revived and expanded by future leaders. While Khrushchev, the Communist Party, and the Soviet Union’s supporters in the West viewed the Gulag as a deviation of Stalin, Solzhenitsyn and many among the opposition tended to view it as a systemic fault of Soviet political culture – an inevitable outcome of the Bolshevik political project.

Parallel to this historical and legal narrative, Solzhenitsyn follows the typical course of a zek (a slang term for an inmate), derived from the widely used abbreviation “z/k” for “zakliuchennyi” (prisoner) through the Gulag, starting with arrest, show trial, and initial internment; transport to the “archipelago”; the treatment of prisoners and their general living conditions; slave labor gangs and the technical prison camp system; camp rebellions and strikes (see Kengir uprising); the practice of internal exile following the completion of the original prison sentence; and the ultimate (but not guaranteed) release of the prisoner. Along the way, Solzhenitsyn’s examination details the trivial and commonplace events of an average prisoner’s life, as well as specific and noteworthy events during the history of the Gulag system, including revolts and uprisings.

Solzhenitsyn also states:

Macbeth’s self-justifications were feeble – and his conscience devoured him. Yes, even Iago was a little lamb, too. The imagination and spiritual strength of Shakespeare’s evildoers stopped short at a dozen corpses. Because they had no ideology. Ideology – that is what gives evildoing its long-sought justification and gives the evildoer the necessary steadfastness and determination. That is the social theory which helps to make his acts seem good instead of bad in his own and others’ eyes…. That was how the agents of the Inquisition fortified their wills: by invoking Christianity; the conquerors of foreign lands, by extolling the grandeur of their Motherland; the colonizers, by civilization; the Nazis, by race; and the Jacobins (early and late), by equality, brotherhood, and the happiness of future generations… Without evildoers there would have been no Archipelago.

— The Gulag Archipelago, Chapter 4, p. 173

There had been works about the Soviet prison/camp system before, and its existence had been known to the Western public since the 1930s. However, never before had the general reading public been brought face to face with the horrors of the Gulag in this way. The controversy surrounding this text, in particular, was largely due to the way Solzhenitsyn definitively and painstakingly laid the theoretical, legal, and practical origins of the Gulag system at Lenin’s feet, not Stalin’s. According to Solzhenitsyn’s testimony, Stalin merely amplified a concentration camp system that was already in place. This is significant, as many Western intellectuals viewed the Soviet concentration camp system as a “Stalinist aberration”

My Thoughts:

Where Volume 1 seemed mainly to be about the process of how the (fictional) legalities came into being that led to arrests and about the arrests and early detainment, this volume was all about the camps and the various kinds of people in the Gulag. The first 65% dealt exclusively with the camps, what went on in them, how the prisoners existed, how they lived (and died) what uses the camps were put too.

This was grueling. I started this particular volume back in August of last year and am just now finishing it up. So 5 months?

I wish I had profound things to write here but I don't. Solzhenitsyn simply chronicles what has gone on and shows how some of it happened (people turning a blind eye, people letting it happen because it was happening to someone else, people letting it happen because they were afraid of it happening to them, people letting it happen because it was happening to a group they didn't like) and the absolutely horrific costs of the camps. Make no mistake, the Gulags were death camps as sure as the Nazi camps were.

Solzhenitsyn also lets his own personality and biases show through quite a bit when he talks about the various kinds of people in the last part of the book. Any time a “thief” is mentioned (ie, a non-political offender for some actual crime), he really goes off against them. He makes no bones about how he survived his time (becoming an informer in the camps) and describes the very few kind of people who would refuse that (Christians being the main group).

Besides the weighty content, what also slowed me down was the references to things or people that I simply had no idea about or anyway to put them into context. Many times whole passages held almost no meaning for me because I didn't know the people being talked about or the brand of Russian humor went winging its way over my head. Solzhenitsyn did have a dry, sarcastic kind of humor and I appreciated what I could understand. Whenever he talked about the language and how particular words grew out of the Gulag, he lost me there too.

I won't go into the politics beyond to say that what we are seeing now in terms of our media organizations in lockstep with the current administration will be very familiar to anyone who has read this.

I am going to be taking an extended break before attempting Volume 3. I've got a bunch of other non-fiction books that have been just sitting on my kindle so it's time to pay them some attention. And I can't face another volume like this for awhile, it's just too much.

★★★★☆ ( )
  BookstoogeLT | Feb 17, 2021 |
Truly worthwhile. A historical record and analysis and a personal story all running in parallel. Provides surprising insights into workings of governments, psychology, human motivations and of course the mind harrowing horrors of Russian 20th century history, showing how a whole society can collapse in on itself. ( )
  Paul_S | Dec 23, 2020 |
Indeholder "Tredje del - Arbejds- og udryddelseslejrene", " 1. Auroras fingre", " 2. Arkipelaget dukker op af havet", " 3. Øhavet sætter metastaser", " 4. Øhavet stivner", " 5. Øhavets fundament", " 6. Fascisterne sættes ind", " 7. De indfødtes hverdag", " 8. Kvinden i lejren", " 9. Lejrhåndlangerne", " 10. I stedet for de politiske", " 11. De loyale", " 12. Samtaler bag den lukkede dør ...".

"Tredje del - Arbejds- og udryddelseslejrene" handler om ???
" 1. Auroras fingre" handler om ???
" 2. Arkipelaget dukker op af havet" handler om ???
" 3. Øhavet sætter metastaser" handler om ???
" 4. Øhavet stivner" handler om ???
" 5. Øhavets fundament" handler om ???
" 6. Fascisterne sættes ind" handler om ???
" 7. De indfødtes hverdag" handler om ???
" 8. Kvinden i lejren" handler om ???
" 9. Lejrhåndlangerne" handler om ???
" 10. I stedet for de politiske" handler om ???
" 11. De loyale" handler om ???
" 12. Samtaler bag den lukkede dør ..." handler om ???

??? ( )
  bnielsen | Jan 14, 2017 |
Indeholder "Tredje del - Arbejds- og udryddelseslejrene", " 13. Man kan altid flå skindet af en mand to gang!", " 14. At ændre sin skæbne!", " 15. SJIZO, BUR, ZUR", " 16. De SOCIALT NÆRSTÅENDE", " 17. De mindreårige", " 18. Museerne i Gulag", " 19. Zek'erne som en nation", " 20. Hundetjeneste", " 21. Den nære omverden", " 22. Vi bygger", "Fjerde del - Sjæl og pigtråd", " 1. Opstigning", " 2. Eller forfald?", " 3. Den martrede frihed", " 4. Nogle levnedsløb".

"Tredje del - Arbejds- og udryddelseslejrene" handler om ???
" 13. Man kan altid flå skindet af en mand to gang!" handler om ???
" 14. At ændre sin skæbne!" handler om ???
" 15. SJIZO, BUR, ZUR" handler om ???
" 16. De SOCIALT NÆRSTÅENDE" handler om ???
" 17. De mindreårige" handler om ???
" 18. Museerne i Gulag" handler om ???
" 19. Zek'erne som en nation" handler om ???
" 20. Hundetjeneste" handler om ???
" 21. Den nære omverden" handler om ???
" 22. Vi bygger" handler om ???
"Fjerde del - Sjæl og pigtråd" handler om ???
" 1. Opstigning" handler om ???
" 2. Eller forfald?" handler om ???
" 3. Den martrede frihed" handler om ???
" 4. Nogle levnedsløb" handler om ???

??? ( )
  bnielsen | Jan 14, 2017 |
Under the Czars Russia produced many great writers, but under the Soviets there was only one, Alexander Solzhenitsyn. His Gulag Archipelago is a masterpiece, it is literature and a record of one of the most monstrous times in history. The Soviet Union, like Nazi Germany and Japan during the Second World War was a slave empire. Together they were the three slave empires of the Twentieth Century. Solzhenitsyn looks at the life of the Corrective Labour Camps, known as GULAG. And like a chain of islands, known as an archipelago, these camps spread right across the Soviet Union. Hence the title of "The Gulag Archipelago".

He starts off here in his second volume with the birth of the camps right at the start of the Russian Revolution. Then the first camp on Solovetsky, the building of the White Sea Canal and the spread of the camps throughout the Soviet Union. How the camps provided both free labour to build the Socialist economy, and that they also destroyed "through labour" those opposed in word, deed or thought to the Soviet Government. What does destroyed through labour mean? It means these people were worked to death. They were murdered as surely as if they had been shot, which the Soviet Government did as well.

He includes chapters on those loyal Communists sent to the Gulags, on how Gulag influenced the entire society, on the Zeks as the prisoners were known, on women, on the Guards, on the 58's (the political prisoners), on the Thiefs. It is hard to think of anything that has been left out. Throughout there are personal stories, things that he experienced and saw, things that others experienced. He includes stories on both those who survived and those who died. His research is impressive and his knowledge is extensive and he admits when he doesn't know something. How impressive is his research? This was the first real study of the Gulags and 40 years after it was published it is still one of the best. It just covers so many bases.

No book is perfect and it must be admitted that most people who start this book will not finish it, it is a heavy book in every sense of the word. This volume is volume 2 for a start, further it's nearly 700 pages long, thats a lot of reading. It is also about the death and destruction of millions of lives. To quote George Orwell out of context, most people do not want to read 700 pages of " If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face—forever". When it was written the Soviet Union existed, it no longer does. What I found interesting is how many things I found that were still current in the world. ( )
  bookmarkaussie | Sep 18, 2016 |
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Tekijän nimiRooliTekijän tyyppiKoskeeko teosta?Tila
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandrensisijainen tekijäkaikki painoksetvahvistettu
Applebaum, AnneEsipuhemuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
Peet, DickKääntäjämuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
Peturnig, AnnaKääntäjämuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
Smit, P. deKääntäjämuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
Walter, ErnstKääntäjämuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
Weijers, MonseKääntäjämuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
Whitney, Thomas P.Valokuvaajamuu tekijäeräät painoksetvahvistettu
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Eos, die Rosenfingrige, von Homer so oft Erwähnte, von den Römern aber Aurora Genannte, ließ ihre zarte Berührung auch dem ersten frühen Morgen des Archipels angedeihen.

(Deutsche Übersetzung von Anna Peturnig und Ernst Walter)
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Aleksandr Solzhenistyn's The Gulag Archipelago has been published in a number of formats, and is catalogued in a variety of ways. The complete work consists of seven parts, often divided into three volumes as follow: Volume One, consisting of Part I ("The Prison Industry") and Part II ("Perpetual Motion"); Volume Two, consisting of Part III ("The Destructive-Labor Camps") and Part IV ("The Soul and Barbed Wire"); and Volume III, consisting of Part V ("Katorga"), Part VI ("Exile") and Part VII ("Stalin Is No More").

THIS LT WORK IS INTENDED ONLY FOR VOLUME TWO, PARTS III-IV.

Please do not combine other copies having materially different content (e.g., Parts I-II, Parts V-VII, the complete work, an omnibus [such as Parts I-VI], any individual Part, or the abridged version). Thank you.
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Englanninkielinen Wikipedia (1)

The Gulag Archipelago is Solzhenitsyn’s attempt to compile a literary-historical record of the vast system of prisons and labor camps that came into being shortly after the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in 1917 and that underwent an enormous expansion during the rule of Stalin from 1924 to 1953. Various sections of the three volumes describe the arrest, interrogation, conviction, transportation, and imprisonment of the Gulag’s victims by Soviet authorities over four decades. The work mingles historical exposition and Solzhenitsyn’s own autobiographical accounts with the voluminous personal testimony of other inmates that he collected and committed to memory during his imprisonment.Upon publication of the first volume of The Gulag Archipelago, Solzhenitsyn was immediately attacked in the Soviet press. Despite the intense interest in his fate that was shown in the West, he was arrested and charged with treason on February 12, 1974, and was exiled from the Soviet Union the following day.

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