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Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860)

Teoksen Taito olla ja pysyä oikeassa : eristinen dialektiikka tekijä

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Arthur Schopenhauer traveled in childhood throughout Europe and lived for a time in Goethe's Weimar, where his mother had established a salon that attracted many of Europe's leading intellectuals. As a young man, Schopenhauer studied at the University of Gottingen and in Berlin, where he attended näytä lisää the lectures of Fichte and Schleiermacher. Schopenhauer's first work was The Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813), followed by a treatise on the physiology of perception, On Vision and Colors (1816). When Schopenhauer wrote his principal work, The World as Will and Idea (1819), he was confident that it was a work of great importance that would soon win him fame, but in this he was badly disappointed. In 1819 he arranged to hold a series of philosophical lectures at the same time as those of the newly arrived professor Hegel, whom Schopenhauer despised (calling him, among other creative epithets, an "intellectual Caliban"). This move resulted only in further humiliation for Schopenhauer, since no one showed up to hear him. Schopenhauer continued to be frustrated in repeated attempts to achieve recognition. In 1839 and 1840 he submitted essays on freedom of the will and the foundation of morality to competitions sponsored by the Royal Danish Academy but he won no prize, even when his essay was the only entry in the competition. In 1844 he published a second volume of The World as Will and Idea, containing developments and commentaries on the first. Around 1850, toward the end of his life, Schopenhauer's philosophy began to receive belated recognition, and he died in the confidence that his long-awaited and deserved fame had finally come. Schopenhauer's philosophy exercised considerable influence in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, not only among academic philosophers but even more among artists and literati. This may be in part because, unlike his German idealist contemporaries, Schopenhauer is a lucid and even witty writer, whose style consciously owes more to Hume than to Kant. Schopenhauer's philosophy is founded on the idea that reality is Will--a single, insatiable, objectless striving that manifests itself in the world of appearance as a vast multiplicity of phenomena, engaged in an endless and painful struggle with one another. He saw the same vision in the texts of Indian religions---Vedanta and Buddhism---which he regarded as vastly superior to Western monotheism. Schopenhauer's theory of the empirical world is an idealism, in which the doctrines of Kant are identified with those of Berkeley. In aesthetic enjoyment Schopenhauer saw a form of knowledge that is higher than ordinary empirical knowledge because it is a disinterested contemplation of the forms or essences of things, rather than a cognition of causal connections between particulars driven by the will's interest in control and domination. True salvation, however, lies in an intuitive insight into the evil of willing, which in its highest manifestations is capable of completely extinguishing the will in a state of nirvana. In his perceptive development of the psychological consequences of his theory, Schopenhauer gives particular emphasis to the way in which our knowledge and behavior are insidiously manipulated by our unconscious volition; this stress, plus the central role he gives to sexuality in his theory of the will, contains much that is found later in Freud (who acknowledged that Schopenhauer had anticipated his theory of repression). Schopenhauer's main influence on twentieth-century philosophy, however, was mediated by Nietzsche, whose theory of the will to power added a poignant twist by committing itself to the affirmation of the will while still conceiving it in essentially the same way---insatiable, painful, predatory, deceptive, and subversive of rational thought---which it had been in Schopenhauer's metaphysical pessimism. (Bowker Author Biography) näytä vähemmän
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Merkitty avainsanalla

Yleistieto

Kanoninen nimi
Schopenhauer, Arthur
Syntymäaika
1788-02-22 (Danzig)
Kuolinaika
1860-09-21 (Frankfurt am Main)
Hautapaikka
1860-09-26 | Hauptfriedhof | Frankfurt am Main
Sukupuoli
male
Kansalaisuus
Duitsland
Syntymäpaikka
Danzig, Kingdom of Poland
Kuolinpaikka
Frankfurt am Main, German Confederation
Kuolinsyy
pulmonary-respiratory failure
Asuinpaikat
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Danzig, Germany (now: Poland)
Hamburg, Germany
Weimar, Germany
Dresden, Germany
Berlin, Germany
Koulutus
University of Göttingen, Germany (philosophy, psychology)
Ammatit
filosoof
Suhteet
Schopenhauer, Johanna (mother)
Organisaatiot
Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft (Senckenberg Nature Research Society)
Lyhyt elämäkerta
At Schopenhauer har hatt mye å si for vitenskapen eller fagfilosofien er derimot en overdrivelse. Tre store filosofer har mottatt avgjørende impulser av ham : Friedrich Nietzsche, Henri Bergson og Ludwig Wittgenstein, ellers har fagfilosofer stort sett ignorert ham. Men forfattere og kunstnere (og en psykolog) har hele tiden funnet veien til hans verker. Samuel Beckett, Jorge Luis Borges, August Strindberg, Richard Wagner, Thomas Mann, Italo Svevo, Leo Tolstoj, Marcel Proust, Sigmund Freud: alle disse og mange andre kunstnere har lest Schopenhauer og blitt fengslet av hans pessimisme, hans opphøyning av kunst (og særlig musikk) i sitt filosofiske system, hans misogyni, hans prosa som mange har betegnet som noe av den tyske kulturhistoriens fineste. "Talent hits a target no one else can hit; genius hits a target no one else can see." -- Arthur Schopenhauer

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Essential read for debate/argument

Loved the in depth analysis of dialectic and the various strategies and counters to each. Very helpful in winning and identifying manipulations in debates
 
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J3R3 | Apr 19, 2024 |
 
Merkitty asiattomaksi
Visitas | Feb 26, 2024 |
Indeholder "Oversætterens forord", "1. Udvidelse", "2. Homonymier", "3. Generalisér modstanderens argument", "4. Skjul dit spil", "5. Falske præmisser", "6. Postulér", "7. Forvir ved hjælp af spørgsmål", "8. Gør modstanderen rasende", "9. Forskyd spørgsmålenes rækkefølge", "10. Giv nejsigeren flere muligheder", "11. Induktion", "12. Vælg dine ord med omhu", "13. Fremstil udsagnets modsætning grelt", "14. Konkludér på trods", "15. Brug et rigtigt udsagn, som et bevis for et forkert", "16. Fordrej modstanderens ord", "17. Forsvar gennem distinktion", "18. Afled disputten", "19. Tal udenom", "20. Drag selv konklusionen", "21. Mød sofistiske argumenter med sofistiske modargumenter", "22. Afvis indrømmelser", "23. Få modstanderen til at overdrive", "24. Drag falske følgeslutninger", "25. Find et modeksempel", "26. Vend argumentet", "27. Fasthold dit argument, hvis modstanderen bliver rasende", "28. Stil modstanderen i et latterlige skær", "29. Diversion", "30. Henvis til autoriteter", "31. Erklær dig ude af stand til at forstå modstanderens argumenter", "32. Kategorisér modstanderens påstand", "33. I teorien sand, i praksis falsk", "34. Fasthold modstanderen", "35. Påpeg at modstanderens mening strider mod hans interesser", "36. Fremfør dybsindigt vås", "37. Udnyt modstanderens dårlige eksempel til gendrivelse af materien", "38. Den sidste udvej", "Eristisk dialektik eller Kunsten altid at få ret", "Basis for al dialektik", "Bilag I", "Bilag II".

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"1. Udvidelse" handler om ???
"2. Homonymier" handler om ???
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"4. Skjul dit spil" handler om ???
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"6. Postulér" handler om ???
"7. Forvir ved hjælp af spørgsmål" handler om ???
"8. Gør modstanderen rasende" handler om ???
"9. Forskyd spørgsmålenes rækkefølge" handler om ???
"10. Giv nejsigeren flere muligheder" handler om ???
"11. Induktion" handler om ???
"12. Vælg dine ord med omhu" handler om ???
"13. Fremstil udsagnets modsætning grelt" handler om ???
"14. Konkludér på trods" handler om ???
"15. Brug et rigtigt udsagn, som et bevis for et forkert" handler om ???
"16. Fordrej modstanderens ord" handler om ???
"17. Forsvar gennem distinktion" handler om ???
"18. Afled disputten" handler om ???
"19. Tal udenom" handler om ???
"20. Drag selv konklusionen" handler om ???
"21. Mød sofistiske argumenter med sofistiske modargumenter" handler om ???
"22. Afvis indrømmelser" handler om ???
"23. Få modstanderen til at overdrive" handler om ???
"24. Drag falske følgeslutninger" handler om ???
"25. Find et modeksempel" handler om ???
"26. Vend argumentet" handler om ???
"27. Fasthold dit argument, hvis modstanderen bliver rasende" handler om ???
"28. Stil modstanderen i et latterlige skær" handler om ???
"29. Diversion" handler om ???
"30. Henvis til autoriteter" handler om ???
"31. Erklær dig ude af stand til at forstå modstanderens argumenter" handler om ???
"32. Kategorisér modstanderens påstand" handler om ???
"33. I teorien sand, i praksis falsk" handler om ???
"34. Fasthold modstanderen" handler om ???
"35. Påpeg at modstanderens mening strider mod hans interesser" handler om ???
"36. Fremfør dybsindigt vås" handler om ???
"37. Udnyt modstanderens dårlige eksempel til gendrivelse af materien" handler om ???
"38. Den sidste udvej" handler om ???
"Eristisk dialektik eller Kunsten altid at få ret" handler om ???
"Basis for al dialektik" handler om ???
"Bilag I" handler om ???
"Bilag II" handler om ???

???
… (lisätietoja)
 
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bnielsen | 17 muuta kirja-arvostelua | Oct 30, 2023 |
 
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luvucenanzo06 | 1 muu arvostelu | Sep 8, 2023 |

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