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Gilbert Murray (1866–1957)

Teoksen Five Stages of Greek Religion tekijä

75+ teosta 878 jäsentä 10 arvostelua

Tietoja tekijästä

Tekijän teokset

Five Stages of Greek Religion (1924) 262 kappaletta
The Rise of the Greek Epic (1911) 76 kappaletta
The Oxford Book of Greek Verse (1930) — Toimittaja — 74 kappaletta
Euripides and his age (1913) 73 kappaletta
The classical tradition in poetry (1927) 53 kappaletta
Aeschylus: The Creator of Tragedy (1940) 31 kappaletta
The literature of ancient Greece (1952) 30 kappaletta
Ten Greek Plays (1930) 23 kappaletta
Humanist Essays (1964) 18 kappaletta
Greek Studies (1946) 18 kappaletta
Aristophanes; a study (1933) 17 kappaletta
The Stoic Philosophy (1915) 14 kappaletta
Hellenism and the modern world (1962) 12 kappaletta
Stoic, Christian and Humanist (1946) 12 kappaletta
Tradition and Progress (2008) 7 kappaletta
Medea (1931) 7 kappaletta
Euripides (1902) 5 kappaletta
The Eumenides of Aeschylus (1948) 5 kappaletta
Liberality and civilization (2014) 4 kappaletta
The Airplane Spider (1920) 4 kappaletta
Alcestis (1915) 3 kappaletta
Esquilo (B. ESTUDIOS CLÁSICOS) (2013) 3 kappaletta
The meaning of freedom (1956) — Avustaja — 3 kappaletta
Bacchae (1900) 3 kappaletta
Essays & addresses 2 kappaletta
The Bacchae 2 kappaletta
The ordeal of this generation (1929) 2 kappaletta
Gilbert Murray's Euripides: The Trojan Women and Other Plays (2005) — Kääntäjä — 2 kappaletta
Satanism and the World Order (2003) 2 kappaletta
Andromache (1913) 2 kappaletta
The Antigone of Sophocles (1941) 1 kappale
How We Stand Now 1 kappale
The Rape of the Locks (1942) 1 kappale
Aristophanes The Frogs (1952) 1 kappale
Euripides Volume 1 (2016) 1 kappale
Carlyon Sahib (2016) 1 kappale

Associated Works

Oresteia (0458) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset10,120 kappaletta
Kuningas Oidipus (0429) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset6,536 kappaletta
Antigone (alkuteksti ja käännös) (0441) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset5,441 kappaletta
Medeia (0431) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset; Kääntäjä, eräät painokset2,882 kappaletta
Bakkhantit (0406) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset1,126 kappaletta
Tragedies (0499) — Toimittaja, eräät painokset1,027 kappaletta
Agamemnon (0458) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset769 kappaletta
Alcestis (0438) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset757 kappaletta
The Frogs [in translation] (0405) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset673 kappaletta
Troades [Greek text] (0415) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset672 kappaletta
Religion and Science (1935) — Toimittaja, eräät painokset602 kappaletta
The Birds [in translation] (0425) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset580 kappaletta
The Persians (0472) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset444 kappaletta
Hippolytus (0428) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset439 kappaletta
Seven Famous Greek Plays (1938) — Kääntäjä — 421 kappaletta
Iphigenia in Tauris (0414) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset368 kappaletta
Electra (0420) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset326 kappaletta
Women of Trachis [in translation] (0440) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset235 kappaletta
Choephoroe (1923) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset169 kappaletta
Greek Historical Thought (1950) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset161 kappaletta
The Suppliants (1975) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset151 kappaletta
Rhesus [in translation] (0480) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset; Toimittaja, eräät painokset128 kappaletta
Political Thought in England, 1848-1914 (1915) — Toimittaja, eräät painokset19 kappaletta
The American Civil War (1911) — Toimittaja, eräät painokset8 kappaletta
Readings on Sophocles (1996) — Avustaja — 7 kappaletta
5 Plays: Alcestis / Electra / Iphigenia in Tauris / Medea / Trojan Women (1934) — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset3 kappaletta
The Athenian drama III: Euripides, translated into English rhyming verse — Kääntäjä, eräät painokset2 kappaletta
Liberal Points of View (1927) — Avustaja — 2 kappaletta
Germany After The War (1944) — Committee member — 1 kappale

Merkitty avainsanalla




lecture delivered at Oxford, sums up Stoic philosophy
Merkitty asiattomaksi
ritaer | 1 muu arvostelu | Aug 18, 2021 |
Merkitty asiattomaksi
cheshire11 | Apr 7, 2021 |
Well written but something of a relic of now discarded theories of cultural evolution. Does include a complete translation of Sallustius "On the Gods".
Merkitty asiattomaksi
ritaer | 4 muuta kirja-arvostelua | Mar 12, 2020 |
I discovered this lecture in George Strodach's notes to Epicurus' The Art of Happiness. I have been thinking about the format of Ancient Greek philosophies, specifically the outlining of the ethos, pathos, and logos of each philosophy. Put simply, these are modes of persuasion, where ethos refers to "character" and the guiding beliefs; pathos refers to emotional appeal, and logos refers to the appeal to logic. From what I can gather, a good deal of the logos of Stoicism is lost to antiquity, whereas Epicurus' logos is contained in his letters to Herodotus and Pythocles. Murray outlines two questions that Zeno of Citium (the founder of Stoicism) grappled with two major questions:
How to live and what to believe.
While the first question was the focus, Murray points out that one cannot address the former without first addressing the latter. First principles, if you will. The Sceptics (and Platonists) had developed ideas about ontology (the nature of being, reality, or existence) and epistemology (theories of knowledge and how we can know something), but Zeno was "a fighter" and "wanted to get to business". This explains in large part the practical nature of Stoicism. But here, like Heraclitus and Epicurus, the idea of God or the gods is an important first principle. Murray uses examples of the Duke of Wellington in asserting the positivist nature of Stoicism - this is a table, here it is, one can see it and touch it - an "uncompromising materialism". But how do we know?
By the evidence of our senses ; for the sense- impression (here Stoics and Epicureans both followed the fifth-century physicists) is simply
the imprint of the real thing upon our mindstuff. As such it must be true.
The idea of managing one's "impressions" is a cornerstone of Stoic philosophy, and here Murray points out that our "sense-impression [is] all right; it is we who have interpreted it wrongly, or received it in some incomplete way". So our impressions are true - we can believe what we see - but how we react to these external events is the focus; the world is "real" and "knowable". So when we ask, What is it to live the good life? - Zeno meant it in "an ultimate Day-of-Judgment sense". Goodness is "performing your function well". This reminds me of Bentham's idea of utility - not being drunk allthe time as a source of happiness, but utility as in a hammer to a carpenter. And acting well in accordance with one's "nature" is the point - Phusis here is translated as "Nature", but in the context of evolution, growth, or the process of growth - continuous improvement comes to mind - moving ever closer to perfection. It means
It means living according to the spirit which makes the world grow and progress, [where] Phusis is not a sort of arbitrary personal goddess, upsetting the natural order; Phusis is the natural order, and nothing happens without a cause.
Such ideas about "natural law" were not unusual to the Ancient Greek philosophers, "indistinguishable from a purpose, the purpose of the great world-process". Phusis is regarded by the Stoics as a form of intellectual fire, which forms:
a principle of providence or forethought [that] comes to be regarded as God, the nearest approach to a definite personal God which is admitted by the austere logic of Stoicism...
Thus Goodness is acting, according to Phusis, in harmony with the will of God.
It is worth quoting Murray at length here to explain the idea of "good" and "nature":
The answer is clear and uncompromising. A good bootmaker is one who makes good boots; a good shepherd is one who keeps his sheep well; and even though good boots are, in the Day-of-Judgment sense, entirely worthless, and fat sheep no whit better than starved sheep, yet the good bootmaker or good shepherd must do his work well or he will cease to be good. To be good he must perform his function; and in performing that function there are certain things that he must prefer; to others, even though they are not really "good"; He must prefer a healthy sheep or a well-made boot to their opposites. It is thus that Nature, or Phusis, herself works when she shapes the seed into the tree, or the blind puppy into the good hound. The perfection of the tree or hound is in itself indifferent, a thing of no ultimate value. Yet the goodness of Nature lies in working for that perfection.
Murray ties his discussion together by looking at two problems of government - a government that is good during the bad times is not necessarily good during the good times, and vice versa. Stoicisms' dual character, however, provides armour when the world is evil, and encouragement when the world is good. In summing up, Murray states that we all, like herd animals, look for a friend, and we ineradicably and instinctively look for a Friend-God so we are not alone in the universe. This is not about reason but a "craving of the whole nature". Two other interesting features of this work are worth recalling. First, the chairman's introduction. He indicates what a good chair should do by outlining what a poor chair had done to Murray on a previous occasion. Second, the purpose of the lecture series was to honour of Dr Moncure Conway, whose:
untiring zeal for the emancipation of the human mind from the thraldom of obsolete or waning beliefs, his pleadings for sympathy with the oppressed and for a wider and profounder conception of human fraternity than the world has yet reached.
What I find most interesting about this work (and the purpose of the lecture series) is its congruence with my reading of Epicurus. Epicurus warned against believing in the popular gods and insisted instead upon an empirical understanding of the world. Maybe not as practical as Zeno's positivism, but certainly not a case of blind faith. Yet Epicurus was not an atheist, and his conception of God may well have been a precursor to monotheism, as much of Stoicism was a precursor to large elements of Christianity and Islam. Indeed, Murray provides a glimpse of this comparison - Ryan Holiday in "A Star is Born" on the Christmas edition of the Daily Stoic newsletter draws out comparisons between the words of Seneca and Jesus - and Strodach reads something similar. Add to this my present reading of Teddy Roosevelt's Autobiography, where he is discussing the power of the herd instinct when rounding-up cattle, and the coincidences are strongly correlating around a common theme! I began by discussing the lack of logos in Stoic philosophy, but Murray's work goes a long way to bringing this to light. It may not be obvious in the practical "enchiridion" sense of the three main books of the Roman Stoics, but when combined with a reading of Epicurus, this lecture says much in very few words.
… (lisätietoja)
Merkitty asiattomaksi
madepercy | 1 muu arvostelu | Oct 11, 2018 |



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