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About the Author

John Locke's works of political and social philosophy, written in the 17th century, have strongly influenced intellectuals ever since - including the founders of the United States of America. Born in 1632 in Wrington, England, Locke studied at Christ Church, Oxford, where he earned his B.A. and näytä lisää M.A. degrees in the late 1650's. He also studied medicine and earned a medical license. His studies led to an interest in contemporary philosophers influenced by science, such as Rene Descartes. Locke read widely among them while teaching at Christ Church over the next few years. In 1667, Locke became personal physician and adviser to Anthony Ashley Cooper, who later was appointed Earl of Shaftesbury. Through Shaftesbury's patronage, Locke earned some government posts and entered London's intellectual circles, all the while writing philosophy. He was one of the best-known European thinkers of his time when he died in 1704. In An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), Locke established the philosophy of empiricism, which holds that the mind at birth is a blank tablet. Experience, Locke believed, would engrave itself upon the tablet as one grew. He felt humans should create theories according to experience and test them with experiments. This philosophy helped establish the scientific method. Locke codified the principals of liberalism in "Two Treatises of Government" (1690). He emphasized that the state must preserve its citizens' natural rights to life, liberty and property. When the state does not, Locke argued, citizens are justified in rebelling. His view of liberalism comprised limited government, featuring elected representation and legislative checks and balances. While a Christian, Locke believed in absolute separation of church and state, and he urged toleration of those whose religious views differed from the majorities. (Bowker Author Biography) näytä vähemmän
Image credit: portrait, 1697, by Sir Gotfrey Kneller

Sarjat

Tekijän teokset

Two Treatises of Government (1689) 2,482 kappaletta
Political Writings (1993) 270 kappaletta
On Politics and Education (1947) 202 kappaletta
Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1869) 128 kappaletta
Political essays (1997) 113 kappaletta
Reasonableness of Christianity (1695) 100 kappaletta
Of the Abuse of Words (2009) 91 kappaletta
Locke Selections (1928) 68 kappaletta
The Conduct of the Understanding (1825) 56 kappaletta
Keystone of Democracy (2005) 32 kappaletta
John Locke: Writings on Religion (2002) 22 kappaletta
Works of John Locke (1714) 16 kappaletta
John Locke: 7 Works (2014) 14 kappaletta
Scritti sulla tolleranza (1997) 13 kappaletta
The correspondence of John Locke (1976) 13 kappaletta
Complete Works of John Locke (2017) 12 kappaletta
The John Locke Collection (2014) 12 kappaletta
Trattato sul governo (1984) 11 kappaletta
The works of John Locke (1977) 8 kappaletta
Two Tracts on Government (1782) 6 kappaletta
Gedanken über Erziehung (1970) 6 kappaletta
John Locke (2000) 6 kappaletta
John Locke on education (1971) 6 kappaletta
Due trattati sul governo (2010) 6 kappaletta
Educational writings (1922) 4 kappaletta
A Locke Miscellany (1990) 3 kappaletta
Dwa traktaty o rządzie (2015) 3 kappaletta
An essay on tolerance 2 kappaletta
Insan Anligi Uzerine Bir Deneme (2000) 2 kappaletta
Great Books 35 1 kappale
John Locke: Collected Works (1997) 1 kappale
Tolleranza e liberta' (1989) 1 kappale
Epistola su la tolleranza (2010) 1 kappale
Four Letters on Toleration (2012) 1 kappale

Associated Works

The English Philosophers from Bacon to Mill (1939) — Avustaja — 467 kappaletta
Britannica Great Books: Locke, Berkeley, Hume (1689) — Avustaja — 357 kappaletta
American Government: Readings and Cases (1977) — Avustaja, eräät painokset245 kappaletta
Eighteenth-Century English Literature (1969) — Tekijä — 186 kappaletta
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (1996) — Tekijä, eräät painokset183 kappaletta
Belief: Readings on the Reason for Faith (2010) — Avustaja — 143 kappaletta
Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology (2004) — Avustaja — 73 kappaletta
Classics of Modern Political Theory : Machiavelli to Mill (1996) — Avustaja — 48 kappaletta
Political philosophy (1965) — Avustaja — 33 kappaletta
Classic Essays in English (1961) — Avustaja — 22 kappaletta
British Moralists 1650-1800, Vol. 1 Hobbes-Gay (1969) — Avustaja — 19 kappaletta
The liberal tradition in European thought (1971) — Avustaja, eräät painokset17 kappaletta
British Moralists 1650-1800, Vol. 2 Hume-Bentham and Index (1991) — Avustaja — 16 kappaletta
Sources: Notable Selections in American Government (1996) — Avustaja — 10 kappaletta
Englische Essays aus drei Jahrhunderten (1980) — Avustaja — 10 kappaletta
Wijsgerige teksten over de wereld (1964) — Avustaja — 2 kappaletta

Merkitty avainsanalla

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Kirja-arvosteluja

Os méritos políticos de John Locke são notáveis pois foi ele, ao mesmo tempo, o grande teórico da democracia, o pregador da tolerância e um profeta da separação entre Estado e Igreja. Locke defende nesta carta que as ações dos cidadãos, principalmente as religiosas, devem ser defendidas pelo Estado, desde que essas ações não contrariem a função principal do Estado - defender a vida, a liberdade e a propriedade. A reivindicação por tolerância baseia-se, no direito natural à liberdade, o que tem como pressuposto a separação entre Estado e Igreja.
Em 1686, este conceito filosófico de tolerância, assume um corpo bem sólido, na tentativa de resolver um conflito geral sobre: diferenças sociais, culturais, civilizacionais, étnicas ou religiosas, enfim entre os limites das identidades e fronteiras individuais ou colectivas.
Foram estas suas ideias que conduziram o Parlamento de Londres a aprovar o Acto da Tolerância, de 1689, autorizando a liberdade de culto aos não-conformistas, mesmo que com uma série de reparos ou objecções, ainda assim esse conceito de tolerância abriu o caminho para a «maravilha política» do século XVIII, que foi a instauração do Estado Secular e o direito à Liberdade Religiosa, primeiro nos Estados Unidos da América, pela constituição de 1787, e logo de seguida em França através da Constituição de 1791. Três séculos depois, a questão essencial da tolerância continua «estranhamente» bem viva, permitindo-nos a pergunta básica: como conviver com a diferença, neste mundo cada vez mais marcado por conflitos de vária ordem?
A resposta reflexiva é-nos dada pelo ilustre John Locke:
«Liberdade absoluta, liberdade justa e verdadeira, liberdade equitativa e imparcial é aquilo de que estamos necessitados. Todavia, apesar de sobre isto muito se ter falado, duvido que tal tenha sido bem compreendido; tenho a certeza que não é de forma alguma praticado, quer pelos nossos governantes em relação ao povo em geral, quer por qualquer das partes do povo em conflito umas com as outras.»
… (lisätietoja)
 
Merkitty asiattomaksi
Jonatas.Bakas | 15 muuta kirja-arvostelua | Dec 25, 2023 |
John Locke nesta carta defende a separação total entre o estado civil ("magistrado") e a religião, considerando que um deve manter-se concentrado nas leis civis, para o bem estar público, e o outro nas leis religiosas, para a salvação das almas.
Num texto simples, bem estruturado, Locke estabelece e defende estas proposições, concluindo que estando o estado fora da ação religiosa, e sendo a religião uma associação voluntária, a liberdade e tolerância religiosa deve ecistir para o bem estar, tanto do corpo mortal como da alma imortal.
A extensa introdução à edição das Edições 70, também tem um foco interessante na contextualização histórica e no desenvolvimento do pensamento de Locke.
O único defeito da edição é o facto de estar cheia de gralhas, não erros gramaticais mas substituição de letras (por vezes três e quatro duma só vez), tornando a leitura um pouco menos suave, e que teria sido facilmente corrigidas com uma simples revisão do texto.
… (lisätietoja)
 
Merkitty asiattomaksi
AlexandreBarata | 15 muuta kirja-arvostelua | Aug 27, 2023 |
It's been some time since I read this, and I don't recall any details.
 
Merkitty asiattomaksi
mykl-s | 26 muuta kirja-arvostelua | Aug 13, 2023 |
The year of 1689 saw two publications that would make John Locke influential force in political discussions for the next four plus centuries, but a third publication would set the stage for a new school of modern philosophy. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding in which Locke argues against that the mind is born with innate ideas and is instead a blank slate that knowledge is gained through experience.

The work is divided into four books: Book I focuses on Locke’s main thesis in opposing the principle of innate ideas, Book II presents Locke’s argument that every idea is derived from experience either by sensation or reflection, Book III focuses on words and how man uses unique sounds to signify ideas then relate them to others, and Book IV focuses on knowledge in general—that it can be thought of as the sum of ideas and perceptions—and if there can be a limit to human knowledge. Over the 635 pages, Locke’s reasoning while thorough also verged on bloated arguments that would have diluted the overall piece. Of the entire essay, Book IV had the most interesting material as Locke focused on various issues but the one that stood out the most was his look into the existence of God and of Faith and Reason.

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a thoughtful yet nearly bloated piece in which John Locke puts forth his thoughts on how we gain knowledge and how we should use it.
… (lisätietoja)
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Merkitty asiattomaksi
mattries37315 | 10 muuta kirja-arvostelua | Feb 19, 2023 |

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